The final report of the FP7-funded support action START-UP (Scientific and Technological Issues in 3Rs Alternatives Research in The Process of Drug Development and Union Politics) are now available. Developed on the initiative of ecopa and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel with collaboration from several NCPs, the aim of START-UP was to identify and make recommendations to abolish bottlenecks in the 3Rs approach in pharmaceutical discovery and development.